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Citizens for Justice and Peace

Legal resources

To empower citizens with knowledge of the law, in both simplified and detailed formats, helps fights injustice in all forms.

CJP’s vast archive and resource base gives all Indians, regardless of caste, gender, class or community factsheets, ready reckoners and more elaborate judgement primers to understand how our judiciary and legislature, both, are furthering fundamental freedoms and rights.

Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Area Act, 1996 (PESA) Enacted on December 24, 1996

The 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution provided for the three-tier Panchayat system under Part IX. Under the Amendment, Article 243M(4)(b) provided that the parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of the Panchayat system to the Scheduled Areas covered in Schedule V. The government established a High Level Committee under the chairmanship of Dilip…

Statistical Profile of Scheduled Tribes in India, 2013 Compiled by the Statistics Division of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs

The second edition in this series publication has been divided in nine sections: Section-1 covers population and the demographic distribution of Scheduled Tribes as per Census 2011. Section-2 enlists the status of education of the STs by looking at attainment and deprivation in areas of education of Scheduled Tribes. Section-3 shows the health and family…

Overview of the law pertaining to land and governance under the Fifth Schedule Compiled by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs in collaboration with the UNDP

The United Nations Development Programme and the Ministry of Tribal Affairs collaborated to compile this report on law pertaining to Schedules Areas as covered under the Fifth Schedule. The Report has been divided into three parts. Part I covers the Fifth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and its related provisions such as the criteria for…

The High Level Committee’s Report on Socio-economic, Health and Educational Status of Tribal Communities of India (May 29, 2014) Committee headed by Prof. Virginius Xaxa

In August 2014, the Prime Minister’s Office constituted a High-Level Committee (HLC) with Prof. Virginius Xaxa as Chairperson. In its Terms of Reference (TOR), the Committee was mandated “to examine the socioeconomic, educational and health status of tribal communities and recommend appropriate interventional measures to improve the same”. The Report comprises thematic sections based on…

Expert Group Report on Development Challenges in Extremist Affected Areas (May 2006) The Planning Commission set up the 16-Member Expert Group on “Development Issues to deal with the causes of Discontent, Unrest and Extremism”.

The Group was established to investigate into the processes and causes which contributed to “continued tensions and alienation in the areas of unrest and discontent”, such as wide-spread displacement, forest issues, insecure tenancies and other forms of exploitation, identify causes for low social and human development indicators, suggest measures to upgrade the levels of governance…

Joint Committee Report on the Scheduled Tribes (Recognition Of Forest Rights) Bill, 2005 The Committee was formed by the Parliament to consider the provisions and possible ramifications of the 2005 Bill

The Scheduled Tribes (Recognition of Forest Rights) Bill, 2005 sought to recognise forest rights of forest dwelling Scheduled Tribes (FDSTs) who have been occupying the land before October 25, 1980. This Bill did not recognise communities which depend on the forest for their survival and livelihood but don’t constitute forest dwellers or Scheduled Tribes. After…

Bombay Natural History Society vs. Union of India First Writ Petition filed against the Forest Rights Act, 2006 before the Supreme Court on January 1, 2008

The Bombay Natural History Society, the Wildlife Trust of India, the All Assam Tribal Youth League, and the Wildlife Society of Orissa filed a Writ Petition against challenging the validity of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (the FRA), particularly its Chapter II and III concerning forest rights…

Commitment to Forest Rights

Writ Petition: Wildlife First vs Union of India Volume I and II

In 2008, Wildlife First along with a few other NGOs filed a writ petition before the Supreme Court of India challenging the constitutional validity of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (the FRA). The Petition based this contention on following grounds: That the FRA was violative of Articles…

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